Work with heavy construction components and prefabricated elements
Many buildings and facilities are erected today with the help of prefabricated elements in concrete, steel or wood.
The construction often goes more quickly than building on site, but entails a number of other risks during installation. The work therefore demands thorough planning of all stages, everything from the execution of each individual element in the factory to the completed building.
At the building site, preparation of the installation is required, among other things, by establishing an installation plan where the different parts of the work must be described.
The installation plan can include the following information:
a) A description of the project with information about who has overall responsibility and who is responsible for different parts in the installation. There should also be information about different suppliers and contact persons.
b) A description of the installation plan with a description of areas to be cordoned off, storage facilities, transport and so on.
c) A description of the element’s assembly order, markings on the element, and its weight.
d) Description of hoisting. Everything from embedding, how the element may be lifted, to the choice of hoisting equipment for the different elements
e) Description of how hoisting equipment must be inspected, who may carry out the coupling, and who has documented training.
f) Detailed description of how the installation must be carried out with:
- instructions about how the fixed fall protection should be mounted, and which type of fall protection guard rails should be used
- information about how a possible net should be mounted, where it should be mounted, and the type of physical load these points can tolerate
- use of work equipment such as scaffolding, aerial work platform, or another type of work basket etcetera, as well as that this work equipment should be inspected, and may only be used/built by staff with documented training
- how/which personal fall protection equipment should be used and applied when no other choice is possible
- which attachment points should be used for personal fall protection equipment and what physical strain this is able to handle
- a plan for the evacuation of someone in distress during falls from height.
g) Stabilising measures of the temporary construction with where and which type of support the construction demands as well as how long this support should be in place.
h) How intermediate storage of the element may be done and where it is possible.
i) Who has established and approved the installation plan, such as responsible constructors and responsible assembly managers, as well as their contact details. The plan should be dated and signed.
j) Current assembly execution in, for the employees, understandable language so that no misunderstanding arises between different employers. Observe that the respective employers always have responsibility for just their staff.
The installation must always be led by a person with specific competence. This means that the person must have customised experience and training about the actual construction of steel/concrete/wood as well as relevant work environment training for the task. Several companies in the sector have, in recent years, trained their staff according to a training model that is called certified supervisor within load bearing structures.
During recent years, several very serious accidents have occurred in connection with the assembly of prefabricated structures. One cause can be deficient coordination of this work. It is not unusual that there is a long chain with different constructors, suppliers, and entrepreneurs who are involved. There can be one who constructs steel, another concrete, one who assembles steel, another who assembles concrete and so on.
The many different players have, in some cases, created an unclear structure regarding who is responsible for what. It is necessary that one takes overall responsibility for the different structures and assembly, from beginning to end, so that a safe installation can be carried out. It is the developer who has the utmost responsibility for the coordination working.
Last updated 2020-05-06